A person who brings a claim or action before a court of law,
whether represented by an attorney, agent or self.
(Also referred to as complainant, accuser, suer.)


In criminal cases, the person accused of the crime.
In civil matters, the person or organization that is being sued.
The person against whom a lawsuit is filed.
(Also referred to as offender, appellant, litigant.)

A type of negligence in which a professional, or professional entity or its subordinates or agents who are under a duty to act, fails to follow generally accepted professional standards in their work, and that breach of duty is the likely cause of injury to a person who suffers damages. The most common are medical and legal malpractice.
(Also referred to as carelessness, malfeasance, negligence, act of omission.)

Personal Injury

An injury not to property, but to your body, mind or emotions.  For example, if you slip and fall on a banana peel in the grocery store, personal injury covers any actual physical harm (broken leg and bruises) you suffered in the fall, as well as the humiliation of falling in public, but not the harm of shattering your watch.  The latter would be considered personal property damage. 
To prove liability, the attorney must establish negligence on the part of the party whose action or inaction caused the personal injury to the victim.

Types of Crime
There are three general types / levels of offenses:

Infractions (which can be subject to a fine up to $100 plus court costs)
Misdemeanors (which can be subject to up to one year in a county jail)
Felonies (which can be subject to term in a state prison)

A violation of a rule or local ordinance or regulation, promise or obligation.


Disorderly conduct, disorderly intoxication, battery, prostitution, petty theft.

rug possession and trafficking crimes; weapons offenses, violent offences;
property crimes - including burglary, larceny and fraud.